Vietnamese help? Look here!Due to a little fuss made by some members, the lovely (and notorious) Aziraphale and I quickly grumbled, mumbled and complied to the request for a different Vietnamese help thread, as others said the one merged with the Nguyen topic was a poorly organized one. From here, I will provide some links for your convenience. Followed by some simple copy and pasted information on the Vietnamese language.
The same rules from the other pinned language threads apply:
- Please check this first post and the posted links for help first. Don't create pages and pages of the same questions.
- Please try to refrain from helping people unless you're completely sure that you're right. Don't risk telling people wrong stuff. If you would still like to try and help, please say that you are not completely sure in your posts.
- If you have any corrections to this first post of mine, or any links to contribute, please PM them to me x-factor not the other mods, and I will change them as soon as possible.
- The rest should be common sense... hopefully.
- Avoid asking me specifically for help, I can't read or write Vietnamese if my life depended on it ;/
Resources:Vietnamese-English Bilinguals in Melbourne: Social Relationships in the Code-Switching of Personal PronounsVietnamese Dictionary & TranslationLexicon of Vietnamese words borrowed from FrenchOnline Keyboard for VietnameseVietnamese language, alphabet and pronounciationVietnamese Alphabet - Wikipedia (Use at your own discretion)Vietnamese Language - Wikipedia (Use at your own discretion)Vietnamese pronouns - Wikipedia (Use at your own discretion)
Vietnamese (tiếng Việt, or less commonly Việt ngữ), formerly known under the French colonization as Annamese (see Annam), is the national and official language of Vietnam. It is the mother tongue of Vietnamese people (người Việt or người Kinh), who constitute 86% of Vietnam's population, and of about three million overseas Vietnamese, most of whom live in the United States. It is also spoken as a second language by some ethnic minorities of Vietnam. It is part of the Austroasiatic language family, of which it has the most speakers by a significant margin (several times larger than the other Austroasiatic languages put together). Much vocabulary has been borrowed from Chinese, and it was originally written using the Chinese writing system. The Vietnamese writing system in use today is an adapted version of the Latin alphabet, with additional diacritics for tones and certain letters.Vietnamese Dialects
There are various mutually intelligible spoken dialects, the main three being:Main dialect
- Names under French colonization
Northern Vietnamese - Hanoi dialect, Other Northern dialects: Haiphong, and various provincial forms - Tonkinese
Central Vietnamese - Huế dialect, Nghệ An dialect, Quảng Nam dialect - High Annamese
Southern Vietnamese - Saigon dialect, Mekong (Far West) dialect - Cochinchinese
These dialects differ slightly in tone, pronunciation, and sometimes vocabulary, although the Huế dialect is more markedly different from the others due to its local vocabulary. The hỏi and ngã tones are distinct in the north but have merged in the south. The ch and tr digraphs are pronounced distinctly in the Southern and Central dialect but are merged in the Northern dialect. Grammatical differences are negligible.The Vietnamese alphabet has the following 29 letters, in collating order:
A Ă B C D Đ E Ê G H I K L M N O Ô Ơ P Q R S T U Ư V X Y
a ă â b c d đ e ê g h i k l m n o ô ơ p q r s t u ư v x y
Vietnamese also uses the 10 digraphs and 1 trigraph below.
CH GH GI KH NG NGH NH PH QU TH TR
These groups were formerly considered single letters and one can find them in older dictionaries. They are no longer considered single letters for collating and similar purposes; so, for example, "CH" will be collated between "CA" and "CO" in modern dictionaries.
The letters "F", "J", "W" and "Z" are not part of the Vietnamese alphabet, but are used in foreign loan words. "W" is sometimes used in place of "Ư" in abbreviations. In informal writing, "W", "F", and "J" are sometimes used in place of "QU", "PH", and "GI", respectively.
Simplified consonant pronunciation guide
Wikibooks Vietnamese has a page on the topic of
How to pronounce the Vietnamese "ng"
At the beginning of syllables, sounds are pronounced as in English except for the following:
* "ph" is like English "f".
* Rural Southern "v" is like English "y". (Hanoi and standard Southern "v" is the same as English "v".)
* "đ" is like French/English "d".
* "t" is like French or Spanish "t" or like pinyin "d".
* "th" is like Hindi "th" (थ) or like English "t" at the beginning of words.
* "x" is like English "s".
* Hanoi "d" is English "z". Saigon "d" is like English "y".
* "ch" is like Pinyin "zh", similar to the "j" in English "jar". (but never aspirated, as in "chair")
* "nh" is like Portuguese "nh", Spanish "ñ", or French "gn".
* "c" is like English "k" (and never like English "c" in "cede" or "s" in "seed" but "c" in "code").
* "kh" is like German or Scottish "ch" or Arabic or Persian "kh".
* "g" is like Dutch "g" or modern Greek "gh" (Γ).
o However, Vietnamese "gi" is like English "z" in Hanoi (the North) and like English "y" in Saigon (the South).
* "ng" is like Hangul "ng" (ㅇ) or English "ng" (without a little hard "g" sound at the end)
* Saigon "tr" is like Hindi "ṭ+ṣ" (ट+ष) or like English "tr" with the tongue tip curled backwards.
* Saigon "s" is like English "sh". (Hanoi "s" is the same as English "s").
* Saigon "qu" is like English "w". (Hanoi "qu" is the same as English "qu").
* Saigon "r" is variously like
- a ) Spanish "r" (most common) or
- b ) French "g", in provincial south, or
- c ) Spanish "rr". (Hanoi "r" is the same as English "z").